rtodd@WHOI Group Members Research Publications Data Media Links


For publication statistics, see Google Scholar or ResearcherID. Student authors advised by R.E. Todd are denoted by *. Postdoc authors advised by R.E. Todd are denoted by .


Todd, R.E., A.S. Ren (2023), Warming and lateral shift of the Gulf Stream from in situ observations since 2001, Nature Climate Change, doi: 10.1038/s41558-023-01835-w.

Mao, S., R. He, J. Bane, G. Gawarkiewicz, R.E. Todd (2023), A data-assimilative modeling investigation of Gulf Stream variability, Deep-Sea Res. Part II, 211, 105319, doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2023.105319.


Jakoboski, J.*, R.E. Todd, W.B. Owens, K.B. Karnauskas, D.L. Rudnick (2022), Potential vorticity and instability in the equatorial undercurrent west of the Galápagos Archipelago, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 52(8), 1927-1943, doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-21-0124.1. [link to article]

Seim, H., et al. (2022), Overview of the Processes driving Exchange At Cape Hatteras (PEACH) project, Oceanography, 35(2), 6-17, doi: 10.5670/oceanog.2022.205. [link to article]


Miles, T.N., et al. (2021), Uncrewed ocean gliders and saildrones support hurricane forecasting and research. Pp. 78–81 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), doi: 10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-28. [link to article]

Shroyer, E., et al. (2021), Bay of Bengal intraseasonal oscillations and the 2018 monsoon onset, Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 102(10), E1936-E1951, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-20-0113.1. [link to article]

Han, L., H. Seim, J. Bane, R.E. Todd, M. Muglia (2021), A shelf water cascading event near Cape Hatteras, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 51(6), 2021-2033, doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-20-0156.1. [link to article]

Todd, R.E. (2021), Gulf Stream mean and eddy kinetic energy: Three-dimensional estimates from underwater glider observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 48(6), e2020GL090281, doi: 10.1029/2020GL090281. [link to article]

Rudnick, D.L., W.B. Owens, T.M.S. Johnston, K.B. Karnauskas, J. Jakoboski, R.E. Todd (2021), The equatorial current system west of the Galápagos Islands during the 2014-2016 El Niño as observed by underwater gliders, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 51(1), 3-17, doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-20-0064.1. [link to article]


Karnauskas, K.B., J. Jakoboski, T.M.S. Johnston, W.B. Owens, D.L. Rudnick, R.E. Todd (2020), The Pacific equatorial undercurrent in three generations of global climate models and glider observations, J. Geophys. Res., 125, e2020JC016609, doi: 10.1029/2020JC016609. [link to article]

Heiderich, J.*, R.E. Todd (2020), Along-stream evolution of Gulf Stream volume transport, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 50(8), 2251-2270, doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-19-0303.1. [link to article]

Todd, R.E. (2020), Export of Middle Atlantic Bight shelf waters near Cape Hatteras from two years of underwater glider observations, J. Geophys. Res., 125, e2019JC016006, doi: 10.1029/2019JC016006. [link to article]

Todd, R.E. (2020), Equatorial circulation in the western Indian Ocean during onset of the 2018 summer monsoon and links to the Bay of Bengal, Geophys. Res. Lett., 47, e2020GL087215, doi: 10.1029/2020GL087215. [link to article]

Jakoboski, J.*, R.E. Todd, W.B. Owens, K.B. Karnauskas, D.L. Rudnick (2020), Bifurcation and upwelling of the Equatorial Undercurrent west of the Galápagos Archipelago, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 50, 887-905, doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-19-0110.1. [link to article]


Goni, G.J., et al. (2019), More than 50 years of successful continuous temperature section measurements by the Global Expendable Bathythermograph Network, its integrability, societal benefits, and future, Front. Mar. Sci., 6:452, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00452. [link to article]

Domingues, R., et al. (2019), Ocean observations in support of studies and forecasts of tropical and extratropical cyclones, Front. Mar. Sci., 6:446, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00446. [link to article]

Subramanian, A., et al. (2019), Ocean observations to improve our understanding, modeling, and forecasting of subseasonal-to-seasonal variability, Front. Mar. Sci., 6:427, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00427. [link to article]

Todd, R.E., et al. (2019), Global perspectives on observing ocean boundary current systems, Front. Mar. Sci., 6:423, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00423. [link to article]

Testor, P., et al. (2019), OceanGliders: a component of the integrated GOOS, Front. Mar. Sci., 6:422, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00422. [link to article]

Szuts, Z.B., et al. (2019), The scientific and societal uses of global measurements of subsurface velocity, Front. Mar. Sci., 6:358, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00358. [link to article]

Gula, J., T.M. Blacic, R.E. Todd (2019), Submesoscale coherent vortices in the Gulf Stream, Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 2704-2714, doi: 10.1029/2019GL081919. [link to article]


Todd, R.E., T.G. Asher, J. Heiderich*, J.M. Bane, R.A. Luettich (2018), Transient response of the Gulf Stream to multiple hurricanes in 2017, Geophys. Res. Lett., 45(19), 10,509-10,519, doi: 10.1029/2018GL079180. [link to article]

Gawarkiewicz, G., R.E. Todd, W. Zhang, J. Partida, A. Gangopadhyay, M.-U.-H. Monim, P. Fratantoni, A.M. Mercer, M. Dent (2018), The changing nature of shelfbreak exchange revealed by the OOI Pioneer Array, Oceanography, 31(1), 60-70, doi: 10.5670/oceanog.2018.110. [link to article]


Goni, G.J, et al. (2017), Autonomous and Lagrangian ocean observations for Atlantic tropical cyclone studies and forecasts, Oceanography, 30(2), 92-103, doi: 10.5670/oceanog.2017.227. [link to article]

Todd, R.E. and L. Locke-Wynn (2017), Underwater glider observations and the representation of western boundary currents in numerical models, Oceanography, 30(2), 88-89, doi: 10.5670/oceanog.2017.225. [link to article]

Centurioni, L., et al. (2017), Northern Arabian Sea Circulation—autonomous research (NASCar): A research initiative based on autonomous sensors, Oceanography, 30(2), 74-87, doi: 10.5670/oceanog.2017.224. [link to article]

Todd, R.E. (2017), High-frequency internal waves and thick bottom mixed layers observed by gliders in the Gulf Stream, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44(12), 6316-6325, doi: 10.1002/2017GL072580. [link to article]

Rudnick, D. L., K. D. Zaba, R. E. Todd, R. E. Davis (2017), A climatology of the California Current System from a network of underwater gliders, Prog. Oceanogr., 154, 64-106, doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2017.03.002. [link to article]

Todd, R.E., D.L. Rudnick, J.T. Sherman, W.B. Owens, L. George (2017), Absolute velocity estimates from autonomous underwater gliders equipped with Doppler current profilers, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 34(2), 309-333, doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-16-0156.1. [link to article]


Todd, R.E., W.B. Owens, D.L. Rudnick (2016), Potential vorticity structure in the North Atlantic western boundary current from underwater glider observations, J. Phys. Oceanog., 46(1), 327-348, doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-15-0112.1. [link to article]


Cenedese, C., R.E. Todd, G.G. Gawarkiewicz, W.B. Owens, A.Y. Shcherbina (2013), Offshore transport of shelf waters through interaction of vortices with a shelfbreak current, J. Phys. Oceanog., 43(5), 905-919, doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-12-0150.1. [link to article]

Todd, R.E., G.G. Gawarkiewicz, W.B. Owens (2013), Horizontal scales of variability over the Middle Atlantic Bight shelf break and continental rise from finescale observations, J. Phys. Oceanog., 43(1), 222-230, doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-12-099.1. [link to article]


Gawarkiewicz, G.G., R.E. Todd, A.J. Plueddemann, M. Andres, J.P. Manning (2012), Direct interaction between the Gulf Stream and the shelfbreak south of New England, Sci. Rep., 2, 553, doi: 10.1038/srep00553. [link to article]

Todd, R.E., D.L. Rudnick, M.R. Mazloff, B.D. Cornuelle, R.E. Davis (2012), Thermohaline structure in the California Current System: observations and modeling of spice variance, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C02008, doi: 10.1029/2011JC007589. [link to article]


Johnston, T.M.S., D.L. Rudnick, G.S. Carter, R.E. Todd, S.T. Cole (2011), Internal tidal beams and mixing near Monterey Bay, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C03017, doi: 10.1029/2010JC006592. [link to article]

Todd, R.E., D.L. Rudnick, M.R. Mazloff, R.E. Davis, B.D. Cornuelle (2011), Poleward flows in the southern California Current System: Glider observations and numerical simulation, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C02026, doi: 10.1029/2010JC006536. [link to article]

Todd, R.E., D.L. Rudnick, R.E. Davis, M.D. Ohman (2011), Underwater gliders reveal rapid arrival of El Niño effects off California’s coast, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L03609, doi: 10.1029/2010GL046376. [link to article]


Todd, R.E., D.L. Rudnick, R.E. Davis (2009), Monitoring the greater San Pedro Bay region using autonomous underwater gliders during fall of 2006, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C06001, doi: 10.1029/2008JC005086. [link to article]